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Biometrical Techniques In Plant Breeding Pdf Download ((HOT))l

Edamame is a vegetable or specialty soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) with high nutrition and market value. The market demand for edamame has significantly increased in the United States since its health and nutritional benefits became recognized. However, there are a limited number of domestically developed or improved edamame cultivars in the United States, and the knowledge of edamame is very limited. In this study, 86 breeding lines and cultivars of maturity group (MG) V and VI developed in the United States were evaluated in replicated field trials for edamame yield and agronomic traits in Virginia in 2015 and 2016. The results indicated that there were significant differences among the genotypes and between years in all the traits investigated (plant height, fresh biomass, pod yield, pod ratio, fresh seed yield, seed ratio, and 100-seed weights), but the yearly differences for dried 100-seed weight and dried-to-fresh ratio of seeds were insignificant. Genotype-by-year interaction effects were not significant in most cases. Estimates of the broad sense heritability varied with traits, from 23% to 88%. Coefficients of phenotypic and genotypic correlation were mostly low, but fresh pod and seed yields were highly correlated. Fresh biomass exhibited a positive phenotypic correlation with pod and seed yields, but the genotypic correlation coefficients were not significant. Twelve breeding lines were preliminarily identified to have greater edamame yield and desired traits. The information generated in this study will be helpful for edamame breeding and commercial production.

Biometrical Techniques In Plant Breeding Pdf Downloadl

Correspondingly, research on edamame, in particular plant breeding and genetics studies, has rarely been reported in the United States. Rao et al. (2002) analyzed fresh green pod and seed yields in 12 vegetable or large-seeded soybean cultivars/genotypes from Japan and China and two adapted U.S. cultivars. Zhang and Kyei-Boahen (2007) evaluated five traits including fresh pod weight in 23 edamame cultivars from MG III to VII in Mississippi. Mebrahtu and Mohamed (2006) analyzed genetic variation for green pod yield and quality in 31 vegetable soybean genotypes from MG III to VI. More recently, Ogles et al. (2016) evaluated 11 selected edamame cultivars of four MGs for adaptability and production in central Alabama. By comparing 136 entries from 22 resources with 14 grain-type cultivars representing a range of MGs, Williams (2015) characterized the vegetable soybean germplasm lines for commercial production. In these studies, differential maturities were involved and the materials mostly originated from out of the United States. To some extent, the results might be affected by the poor adaptation. Use of adapted genotypes with similar maturities in research would reduce such impacts and provide more useful information for production. Since the 1990s, the Virginia State University soybean program has been dedicated to the development of edamame cultivars adapted to the United States, in particular Virginia and similar environments (Mebrahtu et al., 2005). The objective of this study was to evaluate the fresh edamame yield and related agronomic traits in locally bred soybean cultivars and/or breeding lines of MGs V and VI and to analyze the trait correlations, to help the identification and development of adapted superior edamame cultivars with desired traits for the United States.

GENES is a software package used for data analysis and processing with different biometric models and is essential in genetic studies applied to plant and animal breeding. It allows parameter estimation to analyze biological phenomena and is fundamental for the decision-making process and predictions of success and viability of selection strategies. The program can be downloaded from the Internet ( or ) and is available in Portuguese, English and Spanish. Specific literature ( ) and a set of sample files are also provided, making GENES easy to use. The software is integrated into the programs MS Word, MS Excel and Paint, ensuring simplicity and effectiveness in data import and export of results, figures and data. It is also compatible with the free software R and Matlab, through the supply of useful scripts available for complementary analyses in different areas, including genome wide selection, prediction of breeding values and use of neural networks in genetic improvement.

To breed genetically superior plants, the selected individuals must simultaneously unite a series of properties to produce a comparatively higher yield and to meet consumer demands. A way to increase the chances of success of a breeding program is to perform reliable experiments, generating a great volume of experimental data. Based on an adequate processing of these data, genetic parameters can be estimated and biological phenomena interpreted. In this phase of result analysis and interpretation, appropriate software systems and computer resources are of utmost importance.

Particularly in the case of plant genetics, it is noted that the intensive breeding of many species and the complexity of the most important traits require the use of increasingly accurate selection criteria. In all breeding stages, breeders must use information that is expressed in parameters of the biometric models, which are usually available in the output of most scientifically oriented software systems.

a. Examples of data files: Examples of data files to be processed by Genes are available, which are particularly useful in initial studies, for providing a double learning effect about the operation of the application itself and of the statistical and biometrical techniques used. Each procedure is represented by an icon that accesses the file containing an illustrative example of a particular procedure, with the advantage of the complete description of all its parameters for immediate data analysis.

Studies on diversity can be directed to plant breeding, evolutionary associations, conservation and management of plant material, among other purposes. In each case, an adequate methodology and appropriate information are required. The data of measured units, plants, accessions or taxa can be phenotypic or genotypic. Phenotypic information is derived from the evaluation of characteristics with continuous or discrete distributions, of which the latter can be multicategoric or binary. Genotypic data are obtained from molecular markers or DNA sequencing. In the case of markers, there are dominant or co-dominant and diallelic or multiallelic types. All these situations are addressed in the application Genes, by the approach:

GENES is a software package very important for data analysis and processing with different biometric models and is essential in genetic studies applied to plant and animal breeding. The software should supply the increasing demand of users in numerous research institutions who deal with an enormous volume of data, requiring adequate ways of processing to accurately estimate statistical and biological parameters.

Plant tissue culture technology is being widely used for large scale plant multiplication. Apart from their use as a tool of research, plant tissue culture techniques have in recent years, become of major industrial importance in the area of plant propagation, disease elimination, plant improvement and production of secondary metabolites.Small pieces of tissue (named explants) can be used to produce hundreds and thousands of plants in a continuous process. A single explant can be multiplied into several thousand plants in relatively short time period and space under controlled conditions, irrespective of the season and weather on a year round basis [2]. Endangered, threatened and rare species have successfully been grown and conserved by micropropagation because of high coefficient of multiplication and small demands on number of initial plants and space.

In addition, plant tissue culture is considered to be the most efficient technology for crop improvement by the production of somaclonal and gametoclonal variants. The micropropagation technology has a vast potential to produce plants of superior quality, isolation of useful variants in well-adapted high yielding genotypes with better disease resistance and stress tolerance capacities [3]. Certain type of callus cultures give rise to clones that have inheritable characteristics different from those of parent plants due to the possibility of occurrence of somaclonal variability [4], which leads to the development of commercially important improved varieties. Commercial production of plants through micropropagation techniques has several advantages over the traditional methods of propagation through seed, cutting, grafting and air-layering etc. It is rapid propagation processes that can lead to the production of plants virus free [5]. Coryodalisyanhusuo, an important medicinal plant was propagated by somatic embryogenesis from tuber-derived callus to produce disease free tubers [6]. Meristem tip culture of banana plants devoid from banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) and brome mosaic virus (BMV) were produced [7]. Higher yields have been obtained by culturing pathogen free germplasmin vitro. Increase in yield up to 150% of virus-free potatoes was obtained in controlled conditions [8]. The main objective of writing this chapter is to describe the tissue culture techniques, various developments, present and future trends and its application in various fields.


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